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古典吉他:手工琴VS工厂琴
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手工琴 VS 工厂琴 ——荣·费南德兹


这里有几个知识点,讨论“什么是手工琴”的问题。

在西班牙,吉他制作中最对应的区别是“技工琴(artisan guitars)”与“工厂琴(factory guitars)”,而非“手工琴(handmade guitar)”与“工厂琴”。

我们不难发现,比较典型的是,技工琴或大师琴都有签名和日期;与之相比,“练习琴”、工厂琴和学徒琴一般没有签名和日期。

西班牙传统上,吉他制作的各个方面都由比尤埃拉琴行业协会(该协会出现在12世纪到19世纪早期)统一规定。这些古老的行业协会身后有着行业法权,它们决定着谁可以生产乐器,乐器销售目的为何,乐器质量合格的标准是什么,等等。如今,这些行业协会已不复存在,只剩下一些自发组织的拨弦乐器制作家协会和工人联盟。

目前,西班牙吉他制作有三个基本的组织形式:

独立技工作坊。这种作坊中,技工师傅全程监控吉他的式样设计,以及所有吉他部件的生产及组装。每件乐器都是原创的——其实为一种类别之一把。面板的厚度、支架的种类及数量都由技工根据对特殊木材的特性评估而决定。吉他部件是小批量生产的,技工师傅独立工作或与学徒、子女一起工作,有时与合伙人一起工作。与工厂琴制作方法相比,独立技工作坊中鲜有劳动分工。木材是风干多年的,产量每年为12—30把。西班牙吉他世界级水平的制造商有felix manzanero、archangel fernandez, marcelino barbero, miguel rodriquez of cordoba, manuel reyes of cordoba, ignacio fleta, antonio marin montero等等,不一而足。

工厂生产系统。这种系统中生产群体成果的吉他,可以生产出高质量的吉他。这种生产系统由同一个吉他设计方案生产出大量的同质产品。许多人共同制作吉他部件,共同组装吉他部件。木材有风干的,也有烘干的。支架和部件的厚度是标准化的,不随个性特点和木材特性的不同而改变。

熟练工生产系统。这种生产系统是技工作坊和工厂生产系统的结合体。这种系统中,吉他部件由许多人生产,但所有的关键组装工作只由一个富有经验的制作家完成,并根据其直觉修正部件的厚度。最后的杀青及打磨工作由工厂里的许多人完成,这一点很典型。

今天,在巴伦西亚(valencia)附近,具有西班牙特色的工厂生产系统和熟练工生产系统的已经被整合进所谓的技工工厂中去了。在这种情形下,特定的吉他原型由标准的“工厂”生产系统的技术委员会制作,而其他更昂贵的、全单板的吉他原型则在部件制作工的辅助下,由熟练工组装最关键的部分。esteve, zambra 和 vicente sanchis吉他都是在技工工厂生产系统中制作的。

原文对照:

 

"handmade" vs "factory made" by ron fernández

here are a few points which deal with the issue of "what is a handmade guitar".

in spain, the most relevant distinction is between guitarras de artesania (artisan guitars or guitarras de fabrica (factory guitars), not what is a "handmade" guitar.

typically, we find that artisan guitars or master luthier guitars are signed and dated. in contrast, "estudio", production (factory) and apprentice guitars are not normally signed and dated.

traditionally all aspects of guitar production were governed by the vihuela guilds (from 12th the early 19th century). these old guilds had the force of law behind them. the guilds determined who could make instruments, what they were sold for, the acceptable quality standards, etc. today, no such guilds exist, only voluntary luthiers' associations and workers' unions.

currently guitar production in spain is organized in 3 basic ways:

independent artisan workshops. in such shops, the master artisan has full control over design, manufacture of all parts and assembly. each instrument is an original--it is a one of a kind. thicknesses of soundboard, types and number of bracings are determined by the artisan according to his evaluation of the properties of the particular pieces of wood. guitar parts are made in small quantities. the master works alone or with an apprentice, offspring or sometimes a partner. there is little division of labor compared with the factory method.woods are air-dried for many years. production is 12 to 30 guitars a year. examples of world class makers in spain are felix manzanero, archangel fernandez, marcelino barbero, miguel rodriquez of cordoba, manuel reyes of cordoba, ignacio fleta, antonio marin montero, and many others.

factory system. this produces a committee guitar. these can be of high quality.this system produces numerous copies from the same guitar plan. many people make the parts and many people assemble the parts. woods are air-dried and kiln dried.the bracings and thicknesses of parts are standarized and are not altered to respond to the individual characteristics of the specific pieces of wood.

journeyman system. this is a hybrid of the artisan and factory methods. in this system parts are manufactured by a number of people but a single experienced craftsman does all of the crucial assembly operations and modifies the thicknesses of parts according to his intuition. finishing and fretting are typically done by a number of people in the factory.

nowadays around valencia, spain aspects of the factory and journeyman system are combined in what are called artesan factories. in such situations certain guitar models are made by committees in the standard "factory" system while other more expensive, all-solid models are made by skilled workers who do the crucial assembly supported by factory workers who make the parts. esteve, zambra and vicente sanchis guitars are made in artesan factories.

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